Finance is a broad term encompassing things regarding the science, development, and management of loans and other financial investments. It encompasses all those activities which are concerned with the buying, selling, or borrowing of money or other financial resources. Some important aspects of finance include interest, foresight, budgeting, investing, and financing. There are different kinds of financial transactions such as retail banking, portfolio management, commodity and bond markets, international trade, real estate, banking, and money market.
Business decisions are made through financial instruments such as stock, property, partnership, loan, and equity. Financial decisions are based on the supply, demand, and profitability of different financial products such as financial derivatives, interest rates, foreign exchange, and insurance. Accounting is the process of recording financial transactions. A bookkeeper records daily financial transactions such as sales orders, credit balances, loans, and purchase and sale transactions. Accountants perform basic accounting functions such as valuing the assets on hand, creating an account balance, and reporting the financial transactions that have been performed.
Accounting plays an important role in the conduct of business activities and provides vital reports to managers, shareholders, and regulators. In view of the global economic crisis, more small businesses are going online for their accounting needs. Small business accounting software is now available to manage all accounting transactions and produce reports which are crucial in corporate finance analysis.
Capital markets are the main source of finance. Capital markets include commercial loans, merchant banking, trust deeds, and savings and loans. The money market is the term used for the money market funds. Money market funds facilitate short-term lending based on credit conditions between banks and financial institutions. International finance is the branch of international finance. It mainly involves the purchase of assets from all over the world by investors with the aim of raising finance for various projects in a country.
Finance management concerns itself with investment plans and policies. All types of financial institutions deal in finance. Banks make extensive use of derivatives, financial instruments, and other tools to raise funds. Financial institutions can either issue bonds, stocks, or financial securities, or provide loans. A financial manager supervises all these processes and makes sure that appropriate risks are eliminated.
Financial markets are closely connected to other economic factors, like production, consumption, and government policies. For example, wholesale and retail sales are affected by weather and transport problems in the capital markets. This way, finance and banking plays a crucial role in maintaining an environment where economic activity flourishes.